Bimonthly, Established in 1959
Open access journal

2010 Volume 23 Issue 2

Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia

John Smith, Jane Doe, Michael Brown, Sarah Wilson

Background: Schizophrenia in adolescents presents unique clinical challenges. Early onset schizophrenia (EOS) has been associated with poorer prognoses than adult-onset schizophrenia. The use of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of EOS has grown, but comparative studies remain limited.

Aims: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of three commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotics—risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole—in adolescents with EOS.

Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial involving 150 patients aged 13-17 diagnosed with schizophrenia. Patients were randomized to receive risperidone, olanzapine, or aripiprazole over a 12-week treatment period. Efficacy was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Safety assessments included monitoring for extrapyramidal symptoms, weight gain, and metabolic changes.

Results: All three medications significantly reduced PANSS scores from baseline to week 12, with no significant difference in efficacy among them. Aripiprazole treatment was associated with less weight gain and fewer metabolic issues compared to risperidone and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine were more effective in controlling positive symptoms, while aripiprazole showed a moderate advantage in managing negative symptoms.

Conclusions: Risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole are effective in the treatment of EOS. Choice of antipsychotic should consider the side effect profile and individual patient needs, particularly regarding metabolic risks and symptomatology focus. Further long-term studies are needed to assess the durability of these findings and the impact on developmental trajectories in EOS.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

Case Report

Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis: A Case Report

Elizabeth Green, Richard Evans

Background: Clozapine is an effective treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia but is associated with several significant adverse effects, including myocarditis.

Objective: To report a case of clozapine-induced myocarditis in a 21-year-old male with refractory schizophrenia, discussing the diagnostic challenges and management strategies.

Case Presentation: The patient developed chest pain and dyspnea within three weeks of initiating clozapine treatment. Despite initial nonspecific ECG changes, further evaluation revealed elevated troponin levels and cardiac MRI findings consistent with myocarditis. Clozapine was discontinued, leading to a rapid clinical improvement.

Conclusion: This case underscores the importance of monitoring for myocarditis in patients started on clozapine, especially during the early stages of treatment. Early recognition and intervention are crucial to prevent potentially fatal outcomes.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license.

Review Article

Advances in the Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: A Review

Charles Lee, Laura Martin

Background: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a complex psychiatric condition characterized by alternating episodes of depression and mania. Recent advances in neurobiology have begun to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the disorder.

Aims: This review aims to summarize recent findings in the neurobiological study of BD, including genetic factors, neurotransmitter systems, and neuroimaging studies.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using databases such as PubMed and Scopus to collect articles from 2000 to 2010.

Results: Genetic studies have identified several susceptibility genes linked to BD. Neuroimaging studies have highlighted alterations in brain regions involved in emotion regulation, such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Neurotransmitter systems, including serotonin and dopamine, also play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of BD.

Conclusions: Understanding the neurobiology of BD can aid in the development of targeted therapies and improve diagnostic accuracy. Future research should focus on integrating these findings to develop a coherent model of BD.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license.