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Kappa coefficient: a popular measure of rater agreement


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    [No authors listed]Shanghai Arch Psychiatry. 2015 Apr 25;27(2):89.PMID: 26120258 Free PMC article.


In mental health and psychosocial studies it is often necessary to report on the between-rater agreement of measures used in the study. This paper discusses the concept of agreement, highlighting its fundamental difference from correlation. Several examples demonstrate how to compute the kappa coefficient – a popular statistic for measuring agreement – both by hand and by using statistical software packages such as SAS and SPSS. Real study data are used to illustrate how to use and interpret this coefficient in clinical research and practice. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the coefficient.

Keywords: correlation; interrater agreement; weighted kappa.

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