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2011 Volume 23 Issue 2
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Research progress in the use of brain eIectrophysioIogy to diagnose Alzheimer's disease Ning SU,ShiFu XIAO Abstract:Alzheimer's disease is all increasingly important public health problem but we still do not havea reliable method of diagnosing the disorder.There are several promising avenues of research about Ineasures tIlh esil identify those at highest risk for developing Alzheimer's disease.One such area is the development of new neuroelectrophysiological indexes that Call reliably assess the severity of cognitive dysfunction.This article reviews the role of electroencephalog.raphy and brain evoked potentials in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disorder. 
Key words:Alzheimer's disease;Brain evoked potential;Diagnosis
Original research article
Comparison of the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in the occipital area of patients with mild cognitive impairment, patients with Alzheimer's disease and normaI controls LiFeng SHEN,YaLing LI,YanXiang TANG,Yi CUl ABSTRACT Background:There are increasing reports of occipital lobe abnormalities in patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI).These individuals ale also at high risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease(AD). 
Objective:Compale brainstem auditory evoked potentials(BAEP)in the occipital area between patients with MCI,patients with Alzheimer's disease,and age-matched normal control subjects. 
Methods:The BAEP Was elicited in 36 MCI patients,20 AD patients and 45 normal controls(NC)by presenting clicks using aNicolet Bravo instrument.Mean peak latencies and amplitudes of wave III and wave V in the three groups of subjects were compared. 
Results:Wave III in the AD group had a longer mean(SD)latency than in the MCI and NC groups(5.1(0.36)ms vs.4.6(O.35) ln8 vs.4.7(0.35)ms,respectively;F=19.47,P
Conclusion:Occipital BAEP may be helpful in the diagnosis and differentiation of AD and MCI. 
Key words:Mild cognitive impairment;Alzheimer's disease;Brainstem auditory evoked potentials
Comparison of the psychological status and qual ity of life of elderly urban Shanghai residents who receive different types of support services Hong ZHENG,SiLu CHEN,YiWei JI,Hua TAO,WeiDong ji
Coping styles and social support among Shanghai middle schooI students who met criteria for internet addiction WenQing JIANG,YaSong DU,Qin XIN,Ying ZHAO,LiangHan JIANG ABSTRACT Background:Stressful life events are common precipitants of internet addiction in youth.ne mechanism by which stress leads to addictive behavior is mediated by an individual's copying style and method of seeking social support. 
Objective:Assess the social support networks and coping mechanisms employed by middle—school students who meet criteria for internet addiction. 
Method:205 students who met Beard’s criteria for Internet addiction and had associated functional impairment based on a clinical interview were identified and 176(85.9%)of them completed self-completion questionnaires that assessed coping style(a Chines adaptation of the Coping Style Questionnaire)and social support(the Social Support Scale developed in China).The results were compared to those of 352 students(2-to-1 matched for age and gender)who did not meet criteria for internet addiction. 
Results:Compared to students without internet addiction.those with intemet addiction had significantly lower mean scores on the problem—solving subscale and the asking for help subscale of the Coping Style Questionnaire,but they had higher scores on the self-blame subscale and the fantasy subscale.The mean total score. subjective support subscale score,and utilization of support subscale score of the Social Support Scale were significantly lower in the internet addiction group.Logistic regression analysis found that internet addiction was independently related to decreased use of problem—solving coping styles,increased use of fantasy and self-blame coping styles,and decreased utilization of available social support. 
Conclusion:Among middle-school students intemet addiction is associated with poor psychological coping styles and with a lack of utilization of available social support.Further research is needed to determine whether or not promotion of positive coping styles in students and training to develop and use social support networks will prevent interact addiction or ameliorate its negative effects. 
Key words:Coping style;Social support;Internet addiction
Clinical features of unrecognized bipolar disorder in outpatients with major depressive disorder FaZhan CHEN,Zheng LU,Zhen GUO,Xu ZHANG,ChengQing YANG
Forum
Early clinical detection of persons at ultra-high-risk of schtzophrenIa JingPing ZHAO,XiaoFeng GUO Abstract:Early identification and treatment of individuals with ultra—high—risk for psychosis(UHR),who may be in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia,Can prevent the development of the full-blown disorder.Current definitions of UHR are based on genetic susceptibility and on the presence and severity of the prodromal syndrome(i.e.attenuated and/or transient psychotic symptoms and a recent significant deterioration in global functionin91.Recent studies report that 30%-35%of individuals who meet these UHR criteria will develop schizophrenia in the subsequent two years.Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have identified cognitive deficits as well as changes in the structure and function of the brain in UHR individuals.This article reviews recent research findings about the criteria, diagnostic instrmnents,and biological indicators used to assist in the early clinical identification of UHR patients. 
Key words:Schizophrenia;Ultra-high-risk for psychosis;Prodromal stage
The subtypes of schizophrenia TaoYuan XU
Proposed changes in the diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia in DSM-5 Rajiv TANDON
The role of subtypes in understanding dlsease processes within schizophrenia:a case exampIes of‘ Deficit Syndrome Lawrence H.YANG,MingChe TU,HuiTing LIU,Mark OPLER
Commentary
Unrecognized bipolar disorder in patients with a dIagnosIs ot unlpolar depressaon David L.DUNNER
Case report
Application of the Double Bind Theory in two psychotherapy cases YuHong YAO,XuDong ZHAO Abstract:The Double Bind Theory is one of the most important concepts in family therapy reseal'ch and one of the most controversial topics in modem psychiatry.It is amodel of persistent paradoxical interpersonal relationships that are eonflietual,unstable and inescapable. This valuable conceptual framework in psychotherapy is not well understood in mainland China.This article introduces the Double Bind Theory and illustrates three applications of the theory using two psychotherapy cases:1)identifying and changing of patients’double bind communication style;2)avoiding the development of a double bind type of relationship between the therapist and the patient;and 3)using the double bind theory in therapy. 
Key words:Double Bind Theory;Family therapy;Psychotherapy;Clinical application
Research methods in psychiatry
Effect size for continuous outcome measures Naihua DUAN,Yuanjia WANG
Cl inical trials need to be registered prior to enrolling subjects MichaeI R.PHILLIPS
Correspondence
Service users,families,psychiatrists and others providers need to work together towards a common understanding Helen HERRMAN
Involuntary admission or involuntary treatment? Jose M.BERTOLOTE