2019 Volume 32 Issue 1
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, dementia Lewy body, frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia Joshua Marvin Anthony Maclin, Tao Wang, and Shifu Xiao
Background: Dementia is a chronic brain disorder classified by four distinct diseases that impact cognition and mental degeneration. Each subgroup exhibits similar brain deficiencies and mutations. This review will focus on four dementia subgroups: Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia and dementia Lewy body.

Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to create a concise overview of unique similarities within dementia used to locate and identify new biomarker methods in diagnosing dementia.

Methods: 123 300 articles published after 2010 were identified from PubMed, JSTOR, WorldCat Online Computer Library and PALNI (Private Academic Library Network of Indiana) using the following search items (in title or abstract): ‘Neurodegenerative Diseases’ OR ‘Biomarkers’ OR ‘Alzheimer’s Disease’ OR ‘Frontal Temporal Lobe Dementia’ OR ‘Vascular Dementia’ OR ‘Dementia Lewy Body’ OR ‘Cerebral Spinal Fluid’ OR ‘Mental Cognitive Impairment’. 47 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis.

Results: Evidence suggested neuroimaging with amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) scanning and newly found PET tracers to be more effective in diagnosing Alzheimer’s and amnesiac mental cognitive impairment than carbon-11 Pittsburgh compound-B radioisotope tracer. Newly created methods to make PET scans more accurate and practical in clinical settings signify a major shift in diagnosing dementia and neurodegenerative diseases.

Conclusion: Vast improvements in neuroimaging techniques have led to newly discovered biomarkers and diagnostics. Neuroimaging with amyloid PET scanning surpasses what had been considered the dominant method of neuroimaging and MRI. Newly created methods to make PET scans more accurate and practical in clinical settings signify a major shift in diagnosing dementia pathology. Continued research and studies must be conducted to improve current findings and streamline methods to further subcategorise neurodegenerative disorders and diagnosis.
Original research article
Correlation of hair risperidone concentration and serum level among patients with schizophrenia Xiujia Sun, Lihua Wang, Fuzhong Yang, Juanjuan Ren, Ping Jiang, Hongmei Liu, Huafang Li, Chunbo Li a
Background: Risperidone (RSP) has a rapid onset in vivo, low dosage and high plasma protein binding rate, therefore therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed to ensure safety in clinical treatment. However, compared with blood, hair is non-invasive, safe, non-infectious and easy to transport and store.

Aims: This study aims to investigate the correlations among the drug concentrations of RSP in hair and serum, which provides an experimental basis to explore hair as a novel biomaterial to meet the needs of clinical detection.

Methods: 34 patients with schizophrenia treated with RSP for more than 3 months were enrolled in this study. About 1 cm section of hair near the scalp was taken from the subjects, pretreated and detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A correlation analysis was conducted among the drug concentrations in hair, the serum concentrations and the daily dosage. The data were analysed using SPSS 20.0 software.

Results: There was significant correlation between the hair concentration of RSP (two-tailed test, r=0.440, p=0.009) with the serum concentration of RSP, and the hair concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-HR) with the serum concentration of 9-HR had no significant correlation (two-tailed test, r=−0.217, p=0.217); the total concentration of the RSP and 9-HR had no significant correlation between hair and serum (r=0.227, p=0.196). The dosage had no statistically significant correlation with the concentration of RSP in hair (r=0.207, p=0.241), 9-HR in hair (r=−0.194, p=0.271) and the total concentration of RSP and 9-HR in hair (r=0.188, p=0.288). There was no statistical correlation between the dosage and the concentration of RSP in serum (r=−0.059, p=0.741), but significant correlation between the dosage and 9-HR in serum (r=0.581 p

Conclusion: The correlation analysis showed that the concentration of RSP in hair was statistically significant with the serum RSP concentration. In this study, we provided some experimental basis for hair as a new biomaterial to monitor the therapeutic drug concentration.
Study on risk factors of extrapyramidal symptoms induced by antipsychotics and its correlation with symptoms of schizophrenia Jiajun Weng, Yan Zhang, Huafang Li, Yifeng Shen and Wenjuan Yu
Background: Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) are one of the most common and neglected side effects during the treatment of schizophrenia. The risk factors of EPS in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and its relationship with psychiatric symptoms and mood symptoms of schizophrenia remain unknown.

Aims: The main objective of this study is to explore the risk factors of EPS caused by antipsychotics and the relationship between EPS and psychotic symptoms and mood symptoms of schizophrenia.

Method: This study included 679 patients with schizophrenia who have met the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition. Patients were divided into the EPS group and the non-EPS group according to the scale rating criteria and whether the anticholinergics have been used. The differences between demographic data and characters of drug intake were compared between the two groups, and the risk factors of EPS were selected between those factors. Correlation analysis was performed on the severity of schizophrenia (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) score) and EPS scale (Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score) in 679 patients. The differences between the PANSS subscale score and the CDSS score between the EPS group and the non-EPS group were compared.

Result: Compared with the non-EPS group, the EPS group patients are older, and they have a longer duration since first prescribed antipsychotics. The EPS group patients have higher frequency of atypical antipsychotics polytherapy and typical and atypical antipsychotics polytherapy or combined treatments with mood stabilisers. Logistic regression analysis shows that antipsychotics with high D2 receptor antagonistic effect and illness duration are the risk factors of EPS. The SAS score was significantly correlated with PANSS negative score, PANSS general psychopathological score and PANSS total score. The BARS scale score was significantly correlated with PANSS positive score, PANSS general psychopathological score, PANSS total score and CDSS total score. The AIMS scale score was significantly correlated with PANSS negative score. Compared with the non-EPS group, the EPS group patients have significantly higher PANSS negative score, PANSS general psychopathological score, PANSS total score and CDSS total score.

Conclusion: Antipsychotic drugs with high D2 receptor antagonism and disease duration are risk factors of EPS in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The severity of various types of EPS is significantly correlated with the psychiatric and mood symptoms of schizophrenia, and psychiatric symptoms and mood symptoms were significantly more severe in the EPS group. The occurrence of EPS is associated with poor treatment outcome of schizophrenia.
Nicotine dependence in community-dwelling Chinese patients with schizophrenia Yan Li, Cai-Lan Hou, Xin-Rong Ma, Yu Zang, Fu-Jun Jia, Kelly Y C Lai, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Me
Background: Smoking is a serious public health problem. Patients with schizophrenia usually have a higher prevalence of smoking than the general population, but the level of nicotine dependence is seldom studied, especially for patients living in the communities.

Aims: This study aimed to examine the level of nicotine dependence in Chinese community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia and explored its associated sociodemographic and clinical factors.

Methods: A total of 621 patients with schizophrenia treated in the primary care centres of Guangzhou were consecutively recruited. The level of nicotine dependence was assessed with the Chinese version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND).

Results: 148 patients with schizophrenia were current smokers, and the mean (SD) score of FTND was 5.06 (2.55) for all the current smokers. The prevalence of nicotine addiction was 48.0% (95% CI: 40.0%-56.0%) in patients with current smoking. The patients with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of nicotine dependence than the Chinese general population. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that male gender, being unemployed, having a family history of psychiatric disorders, having major medical conditions, first illness episode and less severe positive symptoms were significantly associated with a higher level of nicotine dependence.

Conclusion: Community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia in China, especially male patients, had a higher level of nicotine dependence than the general population.
Mediating effect of interpersonal relations on negative emotions and dysmenorrhea in female adolescents Lingli Mou, Wei Lei, Jing Chen, Rong Zhang, Kezhi Liu and Xue,mei Liang
Background: Good interpersonal relationships can improve the negative mood and, to a certain extent, may help relieve dysmenorrhea symptoms. However, there has been no study examining the role of interpersonal relationships in dysmenorrhea and how they may interact with negative emotions.

Aims: To investigate the connection between negative affect and dysmenorrhea, and the role of interpersonal relationships plays in this relationship.

Methods: The Cox Menstrual Symptom Scale (CMSS), short-form of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Interpersonal Comprehensive Diagnostic Scale and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Loneliness Scale were applied to 855 adolescent nursing students to collect information on severity and frequency of dysmenorrheal symptoms, negative emotions (including depression, anxiety and stress), interpersonal problems and subjective experience of loneliness among them, and the relationship among these variables was examined.

Results: (1) Both the severity and frequency of dysmenorrhea were positively correlated with negative emotions, loneliness experience and interpersonal problems, while negatively correlated with age at menarche. (2) The negative emotions, romantic relationship and menarche age, but not loneliness and interpersonal problems, significantly contributed to both the severity and frequency of dysmenorrhea. (3) Mediation analysis revealed that the effects of loneliness and interpersonal problems on dysmenorrhea were totally mediated by negative emotions.

Conclusions: This investigation indicates that the relationship between interpersonal relationships and dysmenorrhea is mediated by negative emotions.
Editorial
Development and challenges of mental health in China Jianyu Que, Lin Lu and Le Shi Summary: SAS and other popular statistical packages provide support for survey data with sampling weights. For example, PROC MEANS and PROC LOGISTIC in SAS have their counterparts PROC SURVEYMEANS and PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC to facilitate analysis of data from complex survey studies. On the other hand, PROC MEANS and many other classic SAS procedures also provide an option for including weights and yield identical point estimates, but different standard errors (SEs), as their corresponding survey procedures. This paper takes an in-depth look at different types of weights and provides guidance on use of different SAS procedures.
Case report
Twenty years of misdiagnosis of schizophrenia in a patient with Dandy-Walker variant syndrome João Gama Marques
Summary: Various case reports of patients with Dandy-Walker variant syndrome mimicking schizophrenia have been published in the last 20 years, suggesting that this neurodevelopment disorder should be part of the differential diagnosis for every patient with a first episode of psychosis. In this report, it is presented that a patient who was diagnosed and treated as a paranoid schizophrenic for 20 years and had four bone fractures secondary to ataxic gait impairment, before performing a neuroimaging examination that revealed Dandy-Walker variant syndrome.
Relevance of early intervention in Fahr’s disease: understanding through a case study Jamshed Ahmad, Bandna Gupta and Sujita Kumar Kar
Summary: Intracranial calcification may result from disturbances in calcium metabolism. It often remains asymptomatic, but may present with symptoms like seizure and neurological deficits. Correction of the underlying metabolic disturbance before damage of neuronal tissues due to intracranial calcification may be useful in preventing irreversible neurological deficits. This window period may be the crucial period that needs a thorough clinical evaluation and urgent intervention. We highlight the case of an adult woman with Fahr’s disease presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizure. The management priorities were also discussed along with review of literature.
Biostatistics in psychiatry
Guidance for use of weights: an analysis of different types of weights and their implications when using SAS PROCs Sabrina Richardson, Tuo Lin, Yangyi Li, Xiaohui Niu, Manfei Xu, Valerie Stander and Xin M Tu