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SHANGHAI ARCHIVES OF PSYCHIATRY

INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS

(February 2015)

The Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry is a general psychiatry journal published bimonthly by the Shanghai Mental Health Center of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Starting publication in 1959, it was China’s first specialty psychiatry journal and is currently one of the core psychiatry journals published the country. Starting with the first issue of 2012, all the content in the journal has been published in English, with Chinese-language translations of the abstracts of original articles. Starting with the last issue of 2013, a Chinese translation of each English-language issue has been provided free of charge on the journal’s website one month after publication of the English-language version. Papers can be submitted in Chinese or English; Chinese papers will be translated by journal staff and line-edited by native English speakers. The Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry considers manuscripts on the full range of topics relevant to mental health in China and elsewhere, including research in the basic neurosciences, clinical practice, epidemiology, and health services. We welcome original papers on new research and secondary analyses that report on new aspects of high-quality studies that have been published previously. We also consider systematic reviews, meta-analyses, papers on biostatistical and methodological issues relevant to psychiatry, commentaries, letters about previously published research, and forum pieces that discuss different viewpoints on controversial issues of interest to mental health professionals. The Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry is an open-access journal; digital versions of all articles that are accepted are immediately placed on our website (www.shanghaiarchivesofpsychiatry.org) and can be downloaded free of charge. About three weeks after publication, articles appear of Pubmed and other electronic databases where the full-text article can be viewed or downloaded. The Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry does not charge authors for translation of their work and there are not page charges, charges for making articles open access, or other charges. If authors have questions about a potential submission that are not covered in the following instructions, they should contact the editorial staff at shtougao3296@163.com.

1. TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS

1.1 Original Research Articles.

As described below in section 3, the structure and content of original research articles varies somewhat based on the topic. Generally speaking the main text (including introduction, methods, results, and discussion) should be under 4500 words, and there should be no more than 5 tables or figures and less than 30 references. Original articles should include a structured abstract of less than 350 word (see section 3.4) and 3 to 6 keywords that conform to MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) requirements (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/).

1.2 Systematic Reviews.

These are comprehensive reports on the current state of knowledge about a topic of current theoretical, clinical, or public health significance. We are particularly interested in systematic reviews that summarize and interpret the research or clinical practices in China and put it in its international context. Transparency about the material included in systematic reviews is essential, so all reviews should include a flowchart of the search strategy to identify included papers and a separate section in the methods section entitled ‘Search strategy and selection criteria’ stating the sources of the material covered, the search strategy used to identify potential articles, and the criteria used to include or exclude studies. Consideration of both Chinese and English literature, league tables of the characteristics of included studies, and a formal critical appraisal of the quality of each study is desirable but not required (they are required for meta-analysis). Authors who start out with the intention of conducting a meta-analysis but find that there are too few studies that meet criteria or that the heterogeneity of results in the studies is too great to justify combining results can convert the manuscript to a systematic review. Systematic reviews should be under 5000 words and have at least 50 references. They should include an unstructured summary of less than 250 words and 3 to 6 keywords that conform to MeSH requirements (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/). Authors interested in preparing systematic reviews should contact the Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Editor, Professor Chunbo Li (chunbo_li@163.com). BEFORE writing the review to ensure that the topic will be of interest to our readership.

1.3 Meta-analyses.

We are particularly interested in meta-analyses that pool data from studies published in both Chinese and English, as most meta-analyses in international journals do not include studies published in Chinese. Meta-analyses papers need to include a flowchart of the search strategy used to identify included papers, a league table with a description of the characteristics of the included studies (sorted by year of publication), forest plots of the main results and (if there are 10 or more included studies) a funnel plot of the distribution of results to identify potential publication bias. These papers also need to include a formal critical appraisal of the quality of the evidence in the included studies; we recommend authors use the GRADE approach (Guyatt GH et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008; 336(7650): 924-926). It is also important to include an assessment of the heterogeneity of the reported results and a sensitivity analysis to identify outlier results. Meta-analyses should be under 5000 words and have at least 50 references. They should include an unstructured summary of less than 250 words and 3 to 6 keywords that conform to MeSH requirements (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/). Individuals who have questions about writing a meta-analysis paper should contact the Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Editor, Professor Chunbo LI (chunbo_li@163.com).

1.4 Commentaries.

These are detailed discussions about research articles, systematic reviews, or meta-analyses published in the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry by Chinese and international experts who were not involved in the original research. They can consider the methodological issues raised by the original article, the implications of the report, or provide the details of other on-going research projects related to the original report. Commentaries should be under 2000 words in length, include no more than 2 tables or figures, and have less than 15 references.

1.5 Forums.

These papers present a particular point of view on a controversial topic in mental health. They can involve scientific, clinical, or policy issues. The manuscripts should be 1500 to 3000 words in length and have less than 30 references. Authors interested in preparing a manuscript for the Forum section should contact Professor Michael Phillips (mphillipschina@outlook.com) before preparing the paper. If we think the topic of sufficient insterest we will recruit other Chinese and international experts to write papers with alternative viewpoints about the topic.

1.6 Case Reports.

These are single cases or case series that highlight an interesting or important clinical or theoretical issue. We are particularly interested in case reports that highlight specific characteristics of patients in China or specific aspects of the Chinese mental health care system. Case reports should be less than 1500 words in length, include no more than one table or figure, and have less than 10 references. Case reports should include an unstructured summary of less than 150 words and 3 to 6 keywords that conform to MeSH requirements (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/). Submissions for case reports must include a copy of a signed consent form from the patient(s) described in the report (or from the patient’s guardian) which indicates that they have seen and approved of the submitted manuscript.

1.7 Research Methods in Psychiatry.

Our journal is committed to continually improving research methods in psychiatry, to promoting the use of evidence-based methods in the treatment of mental disorders, and to introducing novel methodological approaches to the psychiatric research community. We encourage submissions that describe new research methods or novel approaches to resolving long-standing problems in current research methods. These papers can be focused on any aspect of mental health research including basic animal studies, clinical studies, large-scale epidemiological studies, and policy studies. Articles about the development and evaluation of questionnaires or other instruments and articles that present the methodological background for large multi-centered studies will also be included in this section. Articles should be no longer than 2500 words and have no more than 30 references. Submissions should include an unstructured summary of less than 200 words and 3 to 6 keywords that conform to MeSH requirements (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/). Authors interested in contributing papers to the section should contact the Research Methods in Psychiatry Section Editor, Hui CHENG (chengyaojin@yahoo.com).

1.8 Biostatistical Methods in Psychiatry.

The journal has a regular Biostatistics Methods in Psychiatry Section coordinated by our three biostatistics editors: He HUA (hua_he@urmc.rochester.edu), Ying LU (ying.lu@va.gov) and Xin TU (xin_tu@urmc.rochester.edu). The section describes different statistical methods relevant to psychiatric research. Articles for this section should be no longer than 2500 words, include practical examples of how to conduct the analytic methods being described, and be written for a general research audience (not solely for biostatisticians). Submissions should include an unstructured summary of less than 200 words and 3 to 6 keywords that conform to MeSH requirements (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/). Individuals interested in contributing to this section should contact one of the biostatistical editors.

1.9 Correspondence.

Readers are encouraged to write letters of less than 1500 words with no more than 5 references and no more than one table or figure. Letters will usually discuss some aspect of the research, commentaries, forums, or other content previously published in the journal, but they can also briefly present data from studies or raise other areas of interest to readers.

2. GENERAL INFORMATION FOR PREPARATION OF ALL TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS

Writing in all manuscripts should be clear and concise with no unnecessary use of technical terms or abbreviations, making the manuscripts accessible to all mental health professionals, not only to those who work in a particular field. This section lists general issues relevant for all manuscripts; the next section provides more detailed information about preparing original articles.

2.1 Language of submission.

Manuscripts can be submitted in either Chinese or English. All Chinese-language manuscripts will be translated by the Journal office and line-edited by native English speakers. Once the final English-version of each issue is approved, the entire issue is translated into Chinese by the Journal office. The Chinese-language abstracts of original articles and summaries of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, and articles about biostatistical or research methods are included in the English-language version of each issue. The complete Chinese-language translation of each issue is published in electronic form on the Journal’s website one month after the English-language version is released.

2.2 Formatting of the manuscript.

With some exceptions, the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry follows the style recommendations of the Royal College of Psychiatrists House Style manual which can be freely downloaded at: (http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/RCPsychHouseStyle-Sept14.pdf). Manuscripts should be submitted in Word format (i.e., ‘manuscript.doc’ or ‘manuscript.docx’). Single spacing should be used in the text but main sections and subsections within the text should be divided by empty lines to facilitate reading. The main text should use 10.5-point Calibri typeface, but smaller gauge Calibri typeface can be used in tables if necessary. Chinese-language manuscripts should use standard simplified Chinese characters in number 5 ‘hua wen xi hei’ ( ‘华文细黑’) typeface. The typeface used to distinguish primary, secondary and tertiary levels within the manuscript should be different and used consistently throughout the text. The heading of a main section or a subsection (level 1 and level 2) should be in bold and written on a separate line; the heading for a sub-sub heading (i.e., level 3 heading) should be in italic, not using bold, and on a separate line. The title page, abstract, main text, and each figure and table should begin on a separate page in the manuscript. Whenever possible, figures and tables should be placed at the end of the main document (after the references) rather than being submitted as separate documents. All pages of the manuscript should be sequentially numbered starting 1, 2, 3, and so forth. If a manuscript is accepted, authors will be expected to submit high-definition versions of figures and the original data for any graphs so that figures and graphs can be formatted to Journal style.

2.3 Title.

Many electronic searches are based on titles so the title should clearly describe the main content of the paper. Avoid abbreviations and empty words (e.g., “research study”, “discussion of”) in the title.

2.4 Authors.

Only persons who made a substantial contribution to the work should be listed. This should generally be six or fewer individuals. Do not list a ‘research group’ as the author, though a few named authors could be the representatives of a ‘research group’, the members of which are listed in the acknowledgment section. The order of the authors and the person assigned as the corresponding author needs to be determined at the time of submission, they cannot be changed later. The journal can occasionally accept two ‘co-first authors’ or two ‘co-corresponding authors’ but the reason for this needs to be explained in the cover letter for the manuscript to the editor. We will not accept more than two first authors or more than two corresponding authors.

2.5 Institutional affiliations.

The institution where the first author worked at the time of completing the work reported in the manuscript should be the primary institutional affiliation reported in the manuscript. If the first author currently works at a different institution or if the first author was a trainee from another institution at the time of completing the reported work, the current institution or the home institution can also be noted as secondary institutional affiliations of the first author, but should not be identified as the primary institution for the first author of the manuscript.

2.6 Abstracts and summaries.

Original articles should have structured abstracts of less than 350 words (see Section 3.4 below). Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should have unstructured summaries of less than 250 words; papers about biostatistical or research methods should have unstructured summaries of less than 200 words; and case reports, forums, and commentaries should have unstructured summaries of less than 150 words.

2.7 Key words.

A list of 3 to 6 keywords should follow the abstract or summary of all original articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, forums, commentaries, and papers on biostatistical or research methods. These words are what PubMed and other electronic databases use to classify each article, so authors need to select their keywords carefully from those available at the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) website which is maintained and regularly updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/). Authors can check if specific words or terms they would like to use as keywords are included under MeSH by visiting the ‘MeSH Browser’ website: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html. Instructions on how to use the MeSH Browser are available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/authors.html.

2.8 Acknowledgements, conflict of interest, funding, ethics approval, and informed consent sections

These separate sections are placed in this order after the main text and before any references. The ‘Acknowledgement’ section is optional. ALL manuscripts (including letters and commentaries) must have two separate sections titled ‘Conflict of interest’ and ‘Funding’. All original research must have a section titled ‘Ethics approval’, and all case reports and original research involving humans must have a section titled ‘Informed consent’.

2.8.1 Acknowledgements

This is an optional section. Individuals who provided practical or strategic support for the study or in the preparation of the manuscript but do not meet the requirement of authorship should be mentioned. Their specific contribution can be described (simply) (e.g., ‘assisted in the data collection’, ‘assisted in the analysis’, ‘provided valuable comments on a prior draft’, etc.). The lead author (or the corresponding author) must obtain the written consent of persons who are acknowledged (the editorial office may request this documentation during the review process). Institutions that supported the conduct of the study can also be mentioned, but the funding institution does not need to be mentioned because it is mentioned in a subsequent section.

2.8.2 Conflict of interest

ALL manuscripts must contain a conflict of interest statement. The presence of any financial or other conflict of interest by any of the named authors should be stated (and explained in the cover letter to the editors). If there is no conflict of interest of any of the authors this should be stated (e.g., ‘The authors report no conflict of interest related to this manuscript.’)

2.8.3 Funding support.

ALL manuscripts need to state whether or not any direct or indirect financial support was provided to conduct the study described in the paper or to prepare the manuscript (if the manuscript is not about original research. If funding was provided, the title and number of the grant(s) and the name of the institution(s) that provided grants or financial support to the authors to conduct, analyze, or write-up the study should be specified. The role of the funder in the design, implementation, analysis, and write-up of the study needs to be indicated; if the funder had no such role, this must be clarified. If there is no specific funding agency for the study or no funds were provided to prepare the manuscript, this section should still be included in the manuscript and the statement ‘This study received no external funding.’ or (if the manuscript is not reporting on a specific study) ‘No funding was provided to prepare this manuscript.’ should be placed under the section heading.

2.8.4 Ethics approval.

All original reports must include a statement about how the ethical review for the study was obtained. The name of the institutional review board that approved the study and the month and year the approval was obtained needs to be stated. If animals are used in the study, the authors need to state that their handling of animals meet the ethical standards specified in the Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research specified by the American Psychological Association. If the report is a secondary data analysis of a previous study, the method of obtaining informed consent in the original study needs to be described. If the study uses publically available data sets of data that is not identifiable to individuals (e.g., mortality data, emergency room statistics, national drug sales data, etc.) and, thus, did not require formal ethical review, this should be stated.

2.8.5 Informed consent.

All studies that involve human subjects and all case reports need to include a statement about how informed consent was obtained. If no informed consent was obtained (e.g., chart review) the reason needs to be indicated. If the report is a secondary data analysis, the method of obtaining informed consent in the original study needs to be described. If the study uses publically available data sets of data that are not identifiable to individuals (e.g., mortality data, emergency room statistics, etc.) and, thus, did not require informed consent of individuals, this should be stated. For case reports the informed consent section should indicate that the patient(s) described in the report (or the patient’s guardian) has seen the submitted manuscript and provided written approval to publish the manuscript.